Friday, 20 August 2021

Interconnecting Devices

Interconnecting Devices

An Interconnecting devices is a network device. It used to transfer data from one computer to other computer with the help of network devices. There are five categories of interconnecting devices are such as.

  • Router 
  • Hubs 
  • Switches/Bridge 
  • Repeater 
  • BRouter


Repeater:

Now I am going to tell you the repeater is an electronic device that used to receive and send a signal. It amplifies the signal and noise. It provides transmission of the signal. 

HUB (Hyper User Bus): 

In this, it used to link several computers in the same network. It based on broadcasting, and it sends the data to all computers and repeats the signal which receives a signal from one port and copies to other port and traffic are high.

Bridge / Switch: 

In this, we can see the interconnecting devices which can divide a single network into two or more segment are called Bridge / Switch.  It has multiple ports like 2, 4, 16, and 32. The Switch maintains MAC-TABLE (MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL) and The Bridge maintain CAM-TABLE (CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY).

Router: 

The router is highly intelligent Interconnecting devices which connect two dissimilar networks. It defines the shortest and best path. It maintains a table is called RIT it uses a protocol like RIP, IGRP and EIGRP.

RIT - ROUTING INFORMATION TABLE 

RIP - ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL 

IGRP – INTERIOR GATEWAY ROUTING PROTOCOL 

EIGRP - ENHANCED INTERIOR GATEWAY ROUTING PROTOCOL 


BRouter:

It is the combination of Bridge and Router, it will connect LAN & WAN. It provides a single network into two or more segment and shortest and best path. 

Thursday, 5 August 2021

Rollover Crimping

Rollover Crimping

It is used for connecting Router Console Port to PC Com Port.

The following color patterns are 

  • Brown 
  • Brown white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Green 
  • Green white 
  • Orange 
  • Orange white

Rollover Crimping


 

Crossover Crimping

Crossover Crimping

It is used between like devices (Similar Devices) such as Hub to Hub, PC to PC, Switch to Switch, Hub to Switch and PC to Router 

  • DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
  • DCE (Data Communicating Equipment) - DCE (Data Communicating Equipment)
  • Connecting same device
The following color patterns are 
  • Orange White 
  • Orange 
  • Green White 
  • Blue 
  • Blue White 
  • Green 
  • Brown White 
  • Brown
A Cross Crimp is consists of colors such as orange-white, orange, green-white, blue, blue-white, green, brown-white, and brown this is the color patterns were used for cross crimp and the following diagram is given below.

Crossover Crimping



Straight Crimping

Straight Crimping

It used between unlike device (dissimilar devices) such as Hub to PC, Switch to Hub and Hub to Router.

  • DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - DCE (Data Communicating Equipment)
  • Different device
  • Example: PC and Router Communicate with Modem, Hub, and Switch
The following color patterns are
  • Green white 
  • Green 
  • Orange white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Orange 
  • Brown white 
  • Brown 
A straight crimp is consists of color such as green-white, green, orange-white, blue, blue-white, orange, brown-white, and brown these are the color patterns were using for straight crimp and the following diagram is given below

Straight Crimping



Types of Crimping

Types of Crimping

There are three types of crimp with Twisted Pair Cable 

  • Straight  Crimping ( Different device ) DTE - DCE 
  • Cross Crimping ( Connecting same device ) DTE - DTE  & DCE - DCE
  • Rollover Crimping ( Connecting Router Console Ports to PC Com Ports) 

Where, 

DTE – Data Terminal Equipment   (Used in PC, Router) 
DCE – Data Communicating Equipment   (Used in Modem, Hub, and Switch)

Crimping

Crimping

The Configuring of cables with respective connector is called Crimping. The commonly used cables for crimping are Cat 5, Cat 5e and Cat 6 and these cables connected with RJ45 connector. It used to connect network devices such as PC, Hub, Switch, Router, Modem, Router Console Ports and PC Com Ports.

Twisted Pair cable is have 4 pairs of wire 

  • Green 
  • Green white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Orange 
  • Orange white 
  • Brown 
  • Brown white


Computer Peripherals

Computer Peripherals

A Computer Peripherals is a combination of Input and Output devices. Therefore the process of peripherals device is to put information into computer and get information from computer for users and other devices. Therefor the computer perform some operations by connecting a peripherals devices to the computer machine. For example like keyword connected to computer for giving input information to the computers. The computer peripheral is a hardware component. It used to provide a input and output operations to a computers machines. The following input and output devices pictures are given below.

Input Devices


When you work with the computer to enter your data and instructions through some devices to the computer. Therefore these devices are called input devices and the input devices are necessary to convert data or instructions enter into the computer to a form which can be recognized by the computer.
  • Keyboard 
  • Mouse 
  • Scanner 
  • Joystick 
  • Microphone 
  • Digital camera

Output Devices


However it is similar to input devices require for inputting data, the computer displays or print the output on devices called output devices. Therefore some of the commonly used output devices are:

  • Visual Display Units (VDUs) 
  • Printers 
  • Speakers

Sunday, 25 July 2021

Computer

What is Computer?

A Computer is an electronic device that stores, retrieves and process data or which manipulates data according to a list of instructions and which is composed of hardware and software. Therefore it used for surfing, typing, programming, playing games, etc,. It is a hardware machine and storing of data and displaying information with the help of programmable language using operating systems software. However it uses a windows operating system software to provide a graphical user interface. After that the windows Operating systems which uses windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10. In other words operating system is interface between the user and hardware.

A computer is a sequence of logical operations through a programming languages. A control unit systems used as a industries and other devices like mobile phones such as smart phones. A central processing unit is used to performs a logical operations and the peripheral devices are used such as input devices and output devices. The Input devices are keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanners, etc,. and the output devices are monitor, printer, speakers, etc,. A general purpose devices used like personal computers and mobile devices.

Elaboration (or) Full Form Of Computer

C  - Common
O  - Operating 
M  - Machine 
P   - Particularly 
U  - Used   (for) 
T  - Technical 
E  - Education   (and) 
R  - Research

CMOS

What is CMOS?

CMOS stands for Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor and it stores roughly 64Kb of data. It is the part of the southbridge in most computers. The specification stored in Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor must match hardware and it allows you to access the BIOS. When hardware is change or update, Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor must be updated.

CMOS Battery


Accessing BIOS through CMOS setup

Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor can only be accessed when the PC is booting and key combination at start-up. The changes are stores on an NVRAM Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor chip. The mouse doesn’t work in Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor setup.
  • AMI and AWARD BIOS – DEL key 
  • PHOENIX BIOS – CTRL, ALT and ESC keys or F2     

CMOS Chip

Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor is stored in an SRAM chip called Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM). It stores data that is uses by the BIOS and NVRAM is powered by Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor battery. The modern BIOS is stores in EEPROM and EPROM and SRAM means motherboards are updateable. In older motherboards, you can also reset Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor. 

Other CMOS Settings

  • Load High Performance defaults 
  • Load BIOS setup defaults 
  • Supervisor password 
  • User password 
  • Disconnect the battery for 1 hour to erase the password! 
  • Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor can also be clear using a jumper 

Clear CMOS Jumper

CMOS Jumper 

These jumpers are often located near the BIOS chip itself or next to the CMOS battery. To clear CMOS, move the small plastic jumper from the 2 pins it's on over to the other pins or remove the jumper entirely if this is a 2-pin setup. In a 3-pin setup where the center pin is share. Any confusion here can be clear up by checking the CMOS clearing steps outlined in your computer or motherboard manual.

To confirm, switch on the computer and check through that the BIOS settings have reset, or the system password is now clear or not. If everything is good, shutdown your computer, return the jumper to its original position, and then power on the computer back. If you don't return the jumper to its original position, then CMOS will clear on every restart of your computer.

Caution: Clearing the Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor on your motherboard will reset your BIOS settings to their factory defaults.

CD-ROM Drive Components

CD-ROM Drive Components

A CD-ROM Drive is the commonly used optical storage devices compact disks drive and the components contains a equipment from front view, back view, top view and bottom view portions. The Compact Disk Read Only Memory it contains data were computers can read but not write or erase in CD-ROM it is a type of read-only memory. In the 1990's CD-ROM was use for software and data distribution for the computer. Some CDs are use to play audio on the CD players. Therefore a disk is made up of 1.2 mm thick polycarbonate plastic with a thin layer of aluminum to make a reflective surface. The common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter and the smaller Mini CD standard size is 80 mm in diameter. The following CD-ROM Drive Components are given below.

  • Optical "Head" Assembly 
  • Spindle Motor, Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) and Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) 
  • Connectors and Jumpers 
  • Logic Board 
  • Audio Output and Controls

Front View

  • Headphone Jack 
  • Manual Eject 
  • Tray Eject Button

Back View

  • Digital Audio 
  • Analog Audio 
  • Jumpers 
  • ATAPI / IDE Connector 
  • Power Connector

Top View

  • Clamper 
  • Pickup 
  • Sled Drive Screw 
  • Motor 
  • Optical Deck

Bottom View

  • Rail 
  • Pickup 
  • Sled Drive Screw 
  • Tray Motor 
  • Spindle Motor