Friday, 20 August 2021

Interconnecting Devices

Interconnecting Devices

An Interconnecting devices is a network device. It used to transfer data from one computer to other computer with the help of network devices. There are five categories of interconnecting devices are such as.

  • Router 
  • Hubs 
  • Switches/Bridge 
  • Repeater 
  • BRouter


Now I am going to tell you the repeater is an electronic device that used to receive and send a signal. It amplifies the signal and noise. It provides transmission of the signal. 

HUB (Hyper User Bus): 

In this, it used to link several computers in the same network. It based on broadcasting, and it sends the data to all computers and repeats the signal which receives a signal from one port and copies to other port and traffic are high.

Bridge / Switch: 

In this, we can see the interconnecting devices which can divide a single network into two or more segment are called Bridge / Switch.  It has multiple ports like 2, 4, 16, and 32. The Switch maintains MAC-TABLE (MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL) and The Bridge maintain CAM-TABLE (CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY).


The router is highly intelligent Interconnecting devices which connect two dissimilar networks. It defines the shortest and best path. It maintains a table is called RIT it uses a protocol like RIP, IGRP and EIGRP.






It is the combination of Bridge and Router, it will connect LAN & WAN. It provides a single network into two or more segment and shortest and best path. 

Thursday, 5 August 2021

Rollover Crimping

Rollover Crimping

It is used for connecting Router Console Port to PC Com Port.

The following color patterns are 

  • Brown 
  • Brown white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Green 
  • Green white 
  • Orange 
  • Orange white

Rollover Crimping


Crossover Crimping

Crossover Crimping

It is used between like devices (Similar Devices) such as Hub to Hub, PC to PC, Switch to Switch, Hub to Switch and PC to Router 

  • DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
  • DCE (Data Communicating Equipment) - DCE (Data Communicating Equipment)
  • Connecting same device
The following color patterns are 
  • Orange White 
  • Orange 
  • Green White 
  • Blue 
  • Blue White 
  • Green 
  • Brown White 
  • Brown
A Cross Crimp is consists of colors such as orange-white, orange, green-white, blue, blue-white, green, brown-white, and brown this is the color patterns were used for cross crimp and the following diagram is given below.

Crossover Crimping

Straight Crimping

Straight Crimping

It used between unlike device (dissimilar devices) such as Hub to PC, Switch to Hub and Hub to Router.

  • DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - DCE (Data Communicating Equipment)
  • Different device
  • Example: PC and Router Communicate with Modem, Hub, and Switch
The following color patterns are
  • Green white 
  • Green 
  • Orange white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Orange 
  • Brown white 
  • Brown 
A straight crimp is consists of color such as green-white, green, orange-white, blue, blue-white, orange, brown-white, and brown these are the color patterns were using for straight crimp and the following diagram is given below

Straight Crimping

Types of Crimping

Types of Crimping

There are three types of crimp with Twisted Pair Cable 

  • Straight  Crimping ( Different device ) DTE - DCE 
  • Cross Crimping ( Connecting same device ) DTE - DTE  & DCE - DCE
  • Rollover Crimping ( Connecting Router Console Ports to PC Com Ports) 


DTE – Data Terminal Equipment   (Used in PC, Router) 
DCE – Data Communicating Equipment   (Used in Modem, Hub, and Switch)



The Configuring of cables with respective connector is called Crimping. The commonly used cables for crimping are Cat 5, Cat 5e and Cat 6 and these cables connected with RJ45 connector. It used to connect network devices such as PC, Hub, Switch, Router, Modem, Router Console Ports and PC Com Ports.

Twisted Pair cable is have 4 pairs of wire 

  • Green 
  • Green white 
  • Blue 
  • Blue white 
  • Orange 
  • Orange white 
  • Brown 
  • Brown white

Computer Peripherals

Computer Peripherals

A Computer Peripherals is a combination of Input and Output devices. Therefore the process of peripherals device is to put information into computer and get information from computer for users and other devices. Therefor the computer perform some operations by connecting a peripherals devices to the computer machine. For example like keyword connected to computer for giving input information to the computers. The computer peripheral is a hardware component. It used to provide a input and output operations to a computers machines. The following input and output devices pictures are given below.

Input Devices

When you work with the computer to enter your data and instructions through some devices to the computer. Therefore these devices are called input devices and the input devices are necessary to convert data or instructions enter into the computer to a form which can be recognized by the computer.
  • Keyboard 
  • Mouse 
  • Scanner 
  • Joystick 
  • Microphone 
  • Digital camera

Output Devices

However it is similar to input devices require for inputting data, the computer displays or print the output on devices called output devices. Therefore some of the commonly used output devices are:

  • Visual Display Units (VDUs) 
  • Printers 
  • Speakers

Sunday, 25 July 2021


What is Computer?

A Computer is an electronic device that stores, retrieves and process data or which manipulates data according to a list of instructions and which is composed of hardware and software. Therefore it used for surfing, typing, programming, playing games, etc,. It is a hardware machine and storing of data and displaying information with the help of programmable language using operating systems software. However it uses a windows operating system software to provide a graphical user interface. After that the windows Operating systems which uses windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10. In other words operating system is interface between the user and hardware.

A computer is a sequence of logical operations through a programming languages. A control unit systems used as a industries and other devices like mobile phones such as smart phones. A central processing unit is used to performs a logical operations and the peripheral devices are used such as input devices and output devices. The Input devices are keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanners, etc,. and the output devices are monitor, printer, speakers, etc,. A general purpose devices used like personal computers and mobile devices.

Elaboration (or) Full Form Of Computer

C  - Common
O  - Operating 
M  - Machine 
P   - Particularly 
U  - Used   (for) 
T  - Technical 
E  - Education   (and) 
R  - Research


What is CMOS?

CMOS stands for Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor and it stores roughly 64Kb of data. It is the part of the southbridge in most computers. The specification stored in Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor must match hardware and it allows you to access the BIOS. When hardware is change or update, Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor must be updated.

CMOS Battery

Accessing BIOS through CMOS setup

Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor can only be accessed when the PC is booting and key combination at start-up. The changes are stores on an NVRAM Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor chip. The mouse doesn’t work in Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor setup.
  • AMI and AWARD BIOS – DEL key 
  • PHOENIX BIOS – CTRL, ALT and ESC keys or F2     


Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor is stored in an SRAM chip called Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM). It stores data that is uses by the BIOS and NVRAM is powered by Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor battery. The modern BIOS is stores in EEPROM and EPROM and SRAM means motherboards are updateable. In older motherboards, you can also reset Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor. 

Other CMOS Settings

  • Load High Performance defaults 
  • Load BIOS setup defaults 
  • Supervisor password 
  • User password 
  • Disconnect the battery for 1 hour to erase the password! 
  • Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor can also be clear using a jumper 

Clear CMOS Jumper

CMOS Jumper 

These jumpers are often located near the BIOS chip itself or next to the CMOS battery. To clear CMOS, move the small plastic jumper from the 2 pins it's on over to the other pins or remove the jumper entirely if this is a 2-pin setup. In a 3-pin setup where the center pin is share. Any confusion here can be clear up by checking the CMOS clearing steps outlined in your computer or motherboard manual.

To confirm, switch on the computer and check through that the BIOS settings have reset, or the system password is now clear or not. If everything is good, shutdown your computer, return the jumper to its original position, and then power on the computer back. If you don't return the jumper to its original position, then CMOS will clear on every restart of your computer.

Caution: Clearing the Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor on your motherboard will reset your BIOS settings to their factory defaults.

CD-ROM Drive Components

CD-ROM Drive Components

A CD-ROM Drive is the commonly used optical storage devices compact disks drive and the components contains a equipment from front view, back view, top view and bottom view portions. The Compact Disk Read Only Memory it contains data were computers can read but not write or erase in CD-ROM it is a type of read-only memory. In the 1990's CD-ROM was use for software and data distribution for the computer. Some CDs are use to play audio on the CD players. Therefore a disk is made up of 1.2 mm thick polycarbonate plastic with a thin layer of aluminum to make a reflective surface. The common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter and the smaller Mini CD standard size is 80 mm in diameter. The following CD-ROM Drive Components are given below.

  • Optical "Head" Assembly 
  • Spindle Motor, Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) and Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) 
  • Connectors and Jumpers 
  • Logic Board 
  • Audio Output and Controls

Front View

  • Headphone Jack 
  • Manual Eject 
  • Tray Eject Button

Back View

  • Digital Audio 
  • Analog Audio 
  • Jumpers 
  • ATAPI / IDE Connector 
  • Power Connector

Top View

  • Clamper 
  • Pickup 
  • Sled Drive Screw 
  • Motor 
  • Optical Deck

Bottom View

  • Rail 
  • Pickup 
  • Sled Drive Screw 
  • Tray Motor 
  • Spindle Motor 

Saturday, 17 July 2021

BIOS - Basic Input Output System

What is BIOS? 

A BIOS stands for “Basic Input Output System”, is a chip on the motherboard. It is stored in the computers and it is a ROM (Read Only Memory) chip and EPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) is also known as firmware. It will support all hardware on a 286 AT PC and drivers are required for all other hardware. The original version is 8088 BIOS.


Functions of BIOS 

It stores a set of instructions to tell the PC how to control devices and provides low-level hardware access. It tests hardware on startup using POST and runs “bootstrap loader” after POST. After this, the operating system takes over. The BIOS sit between the hardware and the operating system

BIOS Location

Four Stage Model of Computing

Model of Computing 

Startup Routine

  1. POST 
  2. Bootstrap Loader 
  3. Master Boot Record
  • IO.SYS 
  • NTLDR 

1. During the POST, the BIOS tells drivers to “test themselves” and report back. The problems are flagged either by beeps codes or by messages on the screen. 

e.g. 301- Keyboard failure 

2. Bootstrap Loader 

3. Master Boot Record 

After this the operating system takes over. 


It only checks devices listed in Basic Input Output System. “Devices go forth and test yourselves”. 

  • Beep Codes 
  • Text Errors 
  • Missing NTDLR 
  • Keyboard error or no keyboard present 
  • POST cards POST Error Codes 

Error Code  -  Device 

 100 Series Error (any error in the range 100-199) - Motherboard 

 200 Series Error (any error in the range 200-299) - RAM 

 300 Series Error (any error in the range 300-399) - Keyboard 

 400 Series Error (any error in the range 400-499) - Monochrome Video 

 500 Series Error (any error in the range 500-599) - Colour Video 

 600 Series Error (any error in the range 600-699) - Floppy Drive 

 1700 Series Error (any error in the range 1700-1799) - Hard Drive 

Boot Process

  • CPU’s power good wire “wakes up” the CPU 
  • CPU reads first line of POST program 
  • Bootstrap loader runs 
  • Check if disk is in FDD drive 
  • Look for O.S. on boot sector of hard drive N
  • TLDR or IO.SYS is loaded into RAM 
  • Control is transferred from bootstrap loader to the O.S. 
  • Core O.S. files, drivers and services are loaded into RAM 

BIOS Types

The following Basic Input Output System types are 

  • Motherboard chipsets 
  • Each BIOS designed for a specific chipset 
  • 2Mb of storage 
  • 8088 PC – 384K 
  • Backward compatability 
  • BIOS Manufacturers 
  • AMI 
  • Award 
  • Phoenix 

Updating the BIOS 

  • Original BIOS chips couldn’t be updated that is EEPROM or Flash ROM. 
  • Updates downloaded from Internet 

Why update? 

  • Support for new hardware 
  • Overcome a BIOS bug 
  • “Flashing” the BIOS 

Device Drivers - It is installation disk which loaded into ram on startup. 

Config.sys - Config.sys told the OS where the device drivers were stored. It was located on your hard drive and it is used with the windows operating system and it was originally used with DOS. It is also known as SYSEDIT. 

System.ini - It allowed backward compatibility for older device drivers. It was originally use with windows operating system. 

Registry - In windows, config.sys and system.ini were consolidated in the registry. The registry holds all the configuration settings. It can be accessed through the control panel or device manager and you can also manage directly through regedit and regedit32.


Sunday, 28 March 2021

Plotter Printer

What is Plotter Printer?

A plotter Printer is a specialized graphical printer that is operate by the moving a pen over the surface of a paper. It uses mechanical, inkjet or thermal technology to create a large format images. Because of this, plotters are use for printing technical drawing or CAD application images. A niche use of plotters is in creating tangible images for visually handicapped people on special thermal cell paper. A plotter uses applications for design such as computer-aided design it able to provide faster and higher quality images compared to the other printers. It produced by the line-drawing process. 
A desktop plotter it often used for business graphics. The early use XY-writers output device are digital control plotter which measures instruments and analog computers. The other printer which use to draw complex line art or text is pen plotter. It prints by moving a pen across the surface of the paper. Its performance is slow because of the movement of the pen. However a plotters produces large drawing and high color resolution which based on computer memory and a processor power which is very expensive and limited. The following plotter printer picture is given below.
Plotter Printer

Laser Printer

What is Laser Printer?

A laser printer refers to a type of printers where the printers uses a laser beam to produce images or text on a paper. The main components of a laser printers are drum and toner. A laser printers can print both in black-and-white and color. It can print with a speed of 4-16 ppm and a resolution of 300-1200 dpi and higher. The text and image are produce by passing a laser beam front and back repeatedly with a cylinder called a drum. It uses a toner to transfer the image to paper where toner is a collection of electrical charge powder ink.
The color laser printer prints 6000 pages per hours and it is a high-speed laser printers which is use in the workspace like office for printing huge number of pages and the cost of this technology is depending on the cost of paper, cost of toner, cost of drum replacements and cost of other replacements items such as fuser and transfer assembly. A color laser printers is commonly used colored toner such as cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. A toner cartridge contains smart chips which reduce the number of pages printed with an effort to increase sales of toner cartridge this technique also increases waste.
Laser Printer

Dye Sublimation Printer

What is Dye Sublimation Printer?

A dye-sublimation printers is refers to a type of printers. Thus the printer uses a printing process that utilizes a heat to transfer dye to a medium such as a printers paper, a plastic card or a poster paper. The printers are target primarily for printing a high-quality colour applications such as a colour photography and are less well-suite for a text. Therefore, they are commonly use as a dedicated consumer photo printers. The name sublimation was first applied due to a dye transition between the solid and a gas states without going to a liquid state and a dye-sublimation heat transfer imprinting a printers is use to imprint on a textiles by creating a transfer design in a imprinting printer. 

Then the all-over print process is done at a lower temperature with a higher pressures. In this there are separate panels which use for each colour therefore a dye is stored in the polyester ribbon. The size of the colour panel is a medium which is use for a print. For example, 6” by 4” printer has 6” by 4” panels. At the time of printing the roller move both medium and coloured panels together into the thermal printing head to print medium from the same width as the shorter dimension. Thus The temperature changes rapidly due to a tiny heating elements present on the head and into the printing medium, some of the dyes are diffuse.


  • It prints clear images and gives good quality picture.
  • The printed images are not fade easily it gives permanents image.
  • It prints a hard surface with a different colors and a high quality. 
Dye Sublimation Printer

Inkjet Printer

What is Inkjet Printer?

An inkjet printer is a output device. It refers to a type of printer where the printer sprays tiny droplets of ink onto the media. These ink droplet are slightly electrical charge. The ink droplet place on the media is then determine by the charge of a cathode and electrode between which the ink moves towards the media. Inkjet printers can produce both color and black-and-white printing. They offer printing speed of 2-4 ppm and resolution of 300-600 dpi. Inkjet printers are inexpensive, have low operating cost and produce high-quality printouts because of this inkjet printers are the most widely used consumer printers. The advantages and disadvantages are given below.


  • Its Prints a high resolution and photographic quality.
  • It estimation cost is low per page.
  • Its practically has no warm-up time and printing speed is very high


  • Ink Cartridges contains a microchip that is use to communicate the estimated ink level of the printer this may cause the printer to display an error message.
  • The Ink cartridges cost is high and refilling them have addressed by third-party ink supplies.
  • Due to third party ink supplies, we are not able to apply for a warranty on a printer.
Inkjet Printer

Dot Matrix Printer

What is Dot Matrix Printer?

A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printers with a print head that contains a cluster of pins. The pins run back and front on the page and print by impact with striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against a paper similar to a typewriter. The Dot-matrix printers can print at a speed of 500 cps. Therefore a low-resolution dot matrix printers use 9 pins and a high-resolution dot matrix printer uses 24 pins. Then the low-resolution dot matrix is use to apply ink on the surface for layout. 

In this a printer is able to print different patterns but not only the specific characters. Then a Dot-matrix printers are work as a non-impact method such as laser printers or inkjet printers where they also use the same process for printing. In this each dots produce by a wire or pin which is a tiny metal rod. The tiny electromagnet give the power to move forward directly small levers and a ribbon mask holder which facing the papers is small guide plate it stabbed with holes to provides instructions for pins it is made of hard plastic.
Dot Matrix Printer

MICR Reader

What is MICR Reader?

The Magnetic Ink Character Recognition is widely used by a banks to process large volumes of cheques and a drafts. Therefore bottom line on all cheques and a drafts has a special characters which printed in a special font called a MICR. The Cheques are put inside a MICR reader. As they enter the reading unit the cheques are pass through the magnetic field which causes the read head to recognize the character of the cheques in a MICR line which uses a magnetic ink character recognition encoding. Therefore in the bottom of the cheque which contains a bank account number, a bank code, a cheque number, a cheque amounts and a control indicator. This are the banking process for filling a check form in a banks.

This technology scans and read directly in to a data collection device similar to a barcode technologies in which a humans are easily reads a MICR characters. Therefore a MICR characters are printed on a documents with one or two MICR fonts by using the magnetizable ink. This characters are read by a MICR reader head. Its waveform is easily identified by the system. The MICR readers is a primary tool for cheque which are utilized across the cheque distribution network at many stages. Finally the Magnetic Ink Character Recognition code is used for a reading the code line from the bank cheque book. The following pictures of a MICR reader and a MICR sample cheque are given below.
MICR Reader

Sample Bank Cheque

OMR Scanner

What is OMR Scanner?

The OMR scanner puts a shining beam of light on the document and detects the marked area from unmarked ones. This is possible because a marked area reflects more light in comparison to an unmarked area. An Optical Mark Recognition technique is use when students have appeared for objective type tests and they had to mark their answer by darkening a square or circular space by pencil. These answer sheets are directly fed to a computer for grading where OMR is use. Then users create their own forms in a word processor by using desktop OMR software and print it by a laser printer.

The process of desktop OMR software is to work with an image scanner with the help of a document feeder which produces forms once filled out. For adding marks on OMR sheets a folder inserter equipment is use. In the sequence of black dashes in sheets the marks are added and the folder inserter equipment scans in order to determine and the usage area of OMR sheets are, It normally used for conducting offline exams in exam center were candidates provided with question papers and the OMR answers sheets (Used to mark a dark circle in the answer sheets).
OMR Scanner

OCR Scanner

What is OCR Scanner?

OCR Scanner is generally use in the field of pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and machine vision. OCRs are more expensive than MICR, though they are better than MICR. Optical Character Recognition or Optical Character Reader is use for direct reading of any printed character. It translates images of handwritten or typewritten text, usually captured by a scanner, into machine-editable text. A  OCR is use as a form of data entry which used to print a passport documents, invoice, statements, computerized receipt, business cards, etc,. 

A Optical Character Recognition is a field of research in artificial intelligence, recognition and computer vision. An OCR is a type of images of electronic or mechanical combination. It is also used to convert a different types of document into a text. For example it convert printed character into a digital text. If you loss any important digital file such as passport, you can have a hard copy of it you will easily replace with it by using  OCR scanner with the help of OCR software. Once you’ve scanned your document using OCR, you have the option to edit the text. It can also scan a books, magazines and other documents in to a word processing unit.
OCR Scanner

Types of Database Server

What are the Types of Database Server?

The following types of Database Server are such that

  • Remote Database Servers
  • Local Database Servers

Remote Database Servers

It provides a common logical interface to clients. The common interface is such as Structured Query language (SQL). It is also known as SQL Servers or Remote Database Management Systems (RDBMS). Therefore the remote database applications are two-tier applications or multi-tier applications.

Types of SQL Servers

  • Oracle Server
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • DB Server
  • Interbase Server
  • Informix Server

Local Database Servers

It operates in your local area network or local drive and it accesses the data by APIs. It is also known as File-Based Database Servers. Therefore the local database applications are single-tier applications.

Types of File Based Database Servers

  • Access Server
  • FoxPro Server           
  • dBASE Server
  • Paradox Server

Database Server

What is Database Server?

The database server is a server that maintains and shares any form of the database over the network. It is responsible for hosting one or more databases. The client applications perform database queries that retrieve data from or write data to the database that is hosts on the server and the client applications are like spreadsheets, accounting software, asset management software, or virtually any computer program that consumes well-organized data.

The term database server refers to a back-end system and the user’s computer refers to a front-end system of a database application using a client-server architecture. Therefore the database servers functionality was provided by database management systems (DBMS) and the database. It performs tasks such as data manipulation, data storage, data archiving, and data analysis.

The process of the database servers is the client execute SQL requests to the database servers and the database servers process the client executed database request, then the network computer displays the requested answers of SQL command to the client. Therefore in this whole process, the database servers provides its own power to execute the request or search the requested result. It is also known as the SQL Engine.

Benefits of Database Servers

  • High Performance
  • Optimized Data Access
  • Security
  • Scalability
  • Reliability

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List of Blade Server Products

What are the List of Blade Server Products?

The following list of blade server products are
  • HPE Integrity 
  • HPE Integrity Supremedome X
  • NEC Sigmablade-M  
  • NEC Sigmablade-H 
  • Fujitsu Primergy BE Series 
  • Hitechi Compute
  • Bull Blade Servers
  • Oracle Sun 
  • Oracle Netra Modular System 
  • Dell PowerEdge M 
  • Intel MFSYS25 
  • Cisco UCS Series Server
  • Supermicro Super 
  • Lenovo Flex System 
  • HPE Blade System 

Blade Server

What is Blade Server?

A blade server is a compact, high density, self-contained server that chassis housing multiple thin, modular electronic circuit boards, known as server blades. It is used in the datacenters to save space, minimize power consumption, reduce cooling expenses, redundancy, reduce cabling, increase storage capacity, and reduce energy cost.

Each blade is a server in its own right, often dedicate to a single application. It consists of hot-plug hard drives, memory, input/output cards, and network cards. With enterprise-class blade servers, storage is external, and blades are diskless. A blade servers is used for hosting virtual platforms, file sharing, SSL encryption of web communication, streaming audio and video content, database hosting, and application hosting.

Blade Server

Benefits of Blade Servers

The following benefits of blade servers are

  • Minimize Power Consumption
  • Storage Capacity is High
  • Less needs for Cables
  • High Space Saving
  • Scalable Architecture
  • Diskless or Virtualization Modules

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Types of Web Servers

What are the Types of Web Servers?

The following types of Web Servers are such that

  • Apache HTTP Web Server
  • Microsoft Internet Information Services Web Server
  • Lighttpd Web Server
  • NGINX Web Server
  • Jigsaw Web Server
  • Sun Java System Web Server

Apache HTTP Web Servers

Apache HTTP server was develope by the Apache Software Foundation. It is open-source software and about 60 percent of web server machines run on Apache Web Servers. It supports almost all operating systems such as macOS, Linux, Windows, Unix, FreeBSD, etc,. 

Benefits of Apache HTTP Web Servers

  • Highly Reliable
  • Better Performance
  • Supports both Windows and Linux Operating Systems
  • Flexible
  • Source Code of Apache is Available for Free and No License is Require

Microsoft Internet Information Services Web Servers

IIS is a high performing web servers developed by Microsoft. It offers all the features of Apache HTTP Server and it is not open-source software, as well as modification becomes a bit difficult and it supports only the Windows operating system.

Benefits of IIS Web Servers

  • Improve Performance
  • Reduce  Memory Footprint
  • Build Custom or Specialized Servers
  • Secure the Server by Reducing the Attack Surface Area

Lighttpd Web Servers

Lighttpd is a combination of “light” and “httpd” it was introduce in 2003 and it is open-source software. It has a small CPU load and speed optimizations where you can change speed according to our requirements and at the same time, it can run a large number of connections.

Benefits of Lighttpd Web Servers

  • HTTP Proxy Support
  • Flexible Virtual Hosting
  • Auth Support
  • URL Rewriting Support
  • Servlet Support

NGINX Web Servers

NGINX is a high performing web servers. It combined with IMAP/POP3 proxy server and it is open-source software. Therefore it is used for caching, media streaming, load balancing, handling of static files, auto-indexing, etc,. Instead of creating new processes for each request made by the user, NGINX handles the requests in a single thread, using an asynchronous approach.

Benefits of NGINX Web Servers

  • High Performance
  • Stability
  • Low Resource Usage
  • Simple Configuration

Jigsaw Web Servers

Jigsaw web servers was written in java programming language it can run common gateway interface scripts as well as PHP programs and it is an open source software. It used for delivering pages built or modified with personal home page and JSP scripts and it is from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is not a full-fledged servers, it is designed as an experimental server for the purpose of demonstrating new Web protocols and other feature.

Benefits of Jigsaw Web Server

  • Proxy Server Capability
  • Virtual Hosting
  • Common Gateway Interface

Sun Java System Web Server

Sun java system web server is a multi-process and multi-threaded web server, technologies required for sun java system web server 6.1 are a variety of APIs and programming languages that enable you to generate dynamic content in response to a client request, modify and extend the behavior of server, and modify content stored in a server.

Benefits of Sun Java Web Server

  • High Performance
  • Data Security
  • Scalability
  • Command Line Interface (CLI) Support Reliability to the enterprise

Web Server

What is Web Server?

Web server is server software that runs websites. It can satisfy client requests on the World Wide Web by delivering web pages to the browser. The general purpose of a web server is to store, process, and deliver web pages to users.

The communication between client and server is done by using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). These web pages are mostly static content of HTML documents which include style sheets, images, scripts for text content, etc, A web server also supports server-side scripting using Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Active Server Pages (ASP) and other scripting languages. Apart from HTTP, a web server can also support Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) for emailing, and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for file transfer and storage.

When a website is developed, it was hosted on the webserver, to make it available for other users to see. The website will open in browsers like chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer. Users can able to access the website by its unique web address (domain address). Each website has its own domain address. For example, is a domain address. If the webserver is down, then the web page will not load. 
Web Server Architecture

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How to Setup a Proxy

Steps for How to Setup a Proxy

Internet Explorer Proxy Settings

Click Tools -> Click on Internet Options -> Select the Connections Tab -> Go to LAN settings and click on it -> Select “Use a proxy server for your LAN” option - > Enter the Port Number and the IP Address of the Server -> Click OK.

Google Chrome Proxy Settings

Select the button on the topmost right corner  -> Click on Settings -> Choose Advanced option -> Under advanced option select System -> Under system option Click on Open your computer's proxy settings -> Click LAN Settings -> Select “Use a proxy server for your LAN” option -> Enter the Port Number and the IP Address of the Server -> Click OK.

Types of Proxy

What are the Types of Proxy?

Proxies were mediate connections in multiple ways and affect only certain parts of the connection. However, there are various types of hardware and software that configure these proxies, each creating a unique types of proxy.

  • Residential Proxy
  • Datacenter Proxy
  • Anonymous Proxy
  • Private Proxy
  • Public Proxy
  • Dedicated Proxy
  • Shared Proxy

Types of Proxy Servers

What are the Types of Proxy Servers?

There are different types of proxy servers which used in every day by different clients and networks. Let’s see the following types of proxy servers.

  • Reverse Proxy Servers
  • Rotating Proxy Servers
  • Web Proxy Servers
  • High Anonymity Proxy Servers
  • Forward Proxy Servers
  • Transparent Proxy Servers
  • CGI Proxy Servers
  • Suffix Proxy Servers
  • Distorting Proxy Servers
  • TOR Onion Proxy Servers
  • I2P Anonymous Proxy Servers
  • DNS Proxy Servers

Proxy Server

What is Proxy Server?

A proxy server is a server application or software that acts as an intermediate between an endpoint device or acts as a gateway between you and the internet. Such as computer and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service.

The main purpose of a proxy servers is to improve performance and to filter requests. While HTTP, FTP, and Secure protocols can also be filtered by the proxy servers. It sits between the client application, such as a web browser and a real server. Therefore the proxy servers provides different levels of functionality, security, and privacy it depends on your needs or company policy. However, its helps to prevent an attacker from invading a private network and it is one of the tools to build a firewall.

Proxy Server Structure

Benefits of Proxy Server

  • Save Bandwidth
  • Improve Speed (Using a Caching System)
  • Improve Security
  • Privacy Benefits
  • Internet Usage Control
  • Access to the blocked Resource

Related Post

Cloud Computing

What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves storing data, accessing data and programs over the internet instead of your computer’s hard drive. It is usually classified on the basis of location or on the service that the cloud is offering. The name “cloud computing” that often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.

Cloud Computing Based on Service

The four categories of cloud computing based on service are such as Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS), Software as a service (SaaS), and Function as a service (FaaS). These are also called the cloud computing stack because they on top of one another.

Cloud Computing Based on Location

The four types of cloud computing based on location are such as public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud, and community cloud. They are compare to provide different levels of security and management requirements, it will depend on which type of data you are working with.

Cloud Server

What is Cloud Server?

A cloud server is a logical server or a virtual server, a services are made available to customers on-demand via the internet, rather than being provided by a single server or physical server running in cloud computing environment. It is a logical server that built, hosted, and delivered via cloud computing over internet or accessed by remotely.

The cloud server hosting services are provided by multiple connected servers that comprise a cloud. It is also refers to cloud computing where multiple servers are link together to share the load. The cloud services include data hosting, web hosting, and sharing and application or software use. There are three types of cloud servers that is public cloud servers, private cloud server, and dedicated cloud servers.

Benefits of Cloud Servers

  • Stability and Security
  • High Performance
  • Scalability
  • Easy to upgrade

Application Server

What is Application Server?

The application server is a server designed to host applications for end-users it is also called the app server. It is a program that handles all application operations. It provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them. Therefore in the three-tier client/server environment it provides middle-tier processing between the user’s machine and database management system (DBMS). Therefore the purpose of the application servers is to run software programs. It works together with server operating systems and server hardware to provide services to the residing applications.
However a application servers is uses to install, operate and associate services for end-users, organizations, IT services, and facilitates the delivery and hosting of business applications or high-end consumer. Depending on what is installed, an application servers is classified in a number of ways, such as a web servers, store servers, enterprise application servers, database application servers, or general-purpose servers.
Application Server Architecture

Benefits of Application Servers

The following application servers benefits are such as
  • Provides your organization with an additional layer of security.
  • By sitting in between web pages and databases, an application server helps act as an additional barrier to SQL injection cyber attacks.
  • Boost the performance of large and heavily used applications.
  • Provide integrity to code and data by having an integrated and centralized approach to keeping applications upgraded and updated.
  • Establish more control over network traffic.

List of Application Server Software

The following list of application servers software are
  • C
  • C++
  • Java
  • JavaScript
  • .NET
  • PHP
  • Python
  • Oracle
  • Go
  • Smalltalk
  • Tcl

Types of Servers

What are the Types of Servers?

  • Application Servers
  • Web Servers
  • Cloud Servers
  • Proxy Servers
  • Blade Servers
  • Fax Servers
  • Database Servers
  • Mail Servers
  • Media Servers
  • Print Servers
  • Dedicated Servers
  • Policy Servers

Application Servers

Application servers is a type of server designed to host applications for end-users and it is also called app servers. It is a program that handles all application operations. It provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them.

Web Servers

Web servers is server software that runs websites. It can satisfy client requests on the World Wide Web by delivering web pages to the browser. Therefore the general purpose of web servers is to store, process, and deliver web pages to users.

Cloud Servers

A cloud server is a virtual server or a logical server, services are made available to customers on-demand via the internet, rather than being provided by a single server or physical server. It is also known as virtual servers.

Proxy Servers

Proxy servers is a server application. It acts as an intermediate between an endpoint device, acts as a gateway between you and the internet. Such as computer and another server from which a user or client is requesting a service. The main purpose of a proxy server is to improve performance and to filter requests.

Blade Servers

Blade servers are compact, high density, or self contain server that chassis housing multiple thin, modular electronic circuit boards. It is known as server blades. It uses in the data centers to save space, minimize power consumption, reduce cooling expenses, redundancy, reduce cabling, increase storage capacity, and reduce energy cost. Therefore each blade is a server in its own right, often dedicated to a single application.

Fax Servers

Fax servers is a system it allows clients to send and receive fax via a local area network (LAN). A fax server that shares one or more fax machines via a network, thus eliminating the hassle of physical access. Fax messages can be store as spreadsheets, graphics, printable words, and database files. Therefore the term “fax server” is sometimes uses to describe a program that enables a computer to send and receive fax messages. However, the fax servers consist of four components such as fax application, fax service manager, network connection, and fax modem.

Database Servers

Database servers is a server that maintains and shares any form of the database over the network. It is responsible for hosting one or more databases. The client applications perform database queries that retrieve data from or write data to the database that is hosts on the server. The client applications are like spreadsheets, accounting software, asset management software, or virtually any computer program that consumes well-organized data.

Mail Servers

Mail servers is a server that receives incoming emails from local users and forwards outgoing emails for delivery from remote senders. It is also known as Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) or Mail Transport Agent. In order to function as mail servers, it must include mail servers application, this application allows the system administrator to create and manage email accounts within the hosted domain on the servers. The standard email protocols are SMTP, IMAP, and POP3. The most popular mail servers platforms for windows are Microsoft Exchange Server.   

Media Servers

Media Servers is a computer appliance or application software that stores digital media and makes it available over the internet. It also shares digital media (videos, audios, and images) over a network through media streaming.

Print Servers

Print servers or pinter Servers is a type of server or network device that connects printers to a user computer via a network. It provides users with access to one or more network-attached printers. Some printers have prioritized the jobs locally in the print queue to accommodate the fact that work may arrive more quickly than the printer can actually handle. Printer servers are uses in both large enterprises and small or home offices.

Dedicated Servers

Dedicated servers are a single computer in a network reserve for serving the needs of the network. In a web hosting business, dedicated servers refers to rental and exclusive service, (i.e) a user's rent the server from the web host that includes web servers, software, and connections to the internet. It managed by hosting, managed service providers, or cloud.

Policy Servers

Policy servers are security components of a policy-based network that provides authorization services and facilitates tracking and control of files for modern applications. It supports the necessary patterns to achieve the separation of authentication and authorization including management applications and runtime engine that deals with advance scenarios around policy hierarchy, policy design, and integration with identity.