Thursday, 25 February 2021

Hard Disk

What is Hard Disk?

It is a secondary storage device. In other word called a permanent storage device. The geometry of a hard disk drive is the organization of data on the platters. The geometry of the hard disk drive specifies how and where to store data on the surface of each platter. 

It is usually specified by the following numerical values.

  • Heads
  • Cylinders
  • Sectors per track
  • Write precompensation
  • Landing zone 
Hard Disk Components

Components of a Hard Disk

  • Platters and Media
  • Read/Write Heads
  • Head Sliders, Arms and Actuator
  • Spindle Motor
  • Stepper Motor
  • Connectors and Jumpers
  • Logic Board
  • Integrated Cache

Platter (Tracks should be in Circle)

In a platter is made up of Aluminium it only stores data. It is a light material, it has high tolerance, and shape does not change. Under the high centrifugal force that occurs at high rotation. Nowadays platter is made up of ceramic and glass, which have low thermal material. (Rotation speeds: New = 7600-10000 RPM, Old = 3600-5200RPM) Data stored in binary.

Spindle Motor

The Spindle Motor is use to rotate the platter.

Stepper Motor

The Stepper motor function is to move the head to the platter, to read/write the data. Input/output data are send through the header.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

The Printed circuit board is use to convert Binary information into digital information, which stores in platter through R/W head. It is used to function the hard disk through many ICs.

Read/Write Heads

It is used to Read/Write the data. The header will be located the information data, it collects the data with the help of an electrical signal.

Floppy Disk

What is Floppy Disk?

The Floppy Disk is a simple storage disks. It was used in a med of 1970s to 1990s and perform a read and write operations through a floppy disks drive. Therefore it is thin and flexible magnetic storage tape which sealed with rectangular plastic and fabric (for removes dust particles from tape). A floppy disks is 8 inch (203 mm) and in 5 1⁄4-inch (133 mm) and 3 1⁄2 inch (90 mm) sizes. 
The common capacity of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disks was 360 KB for Double-Sided Double Density (DSDD). In 1984, IBM introduced the PC-AT model the capacity of 1.2 MB it is a dual-sided 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disks, but it never became popular. Therefore in 1986 IBM started using 720 KB double density 3 1⁄2-inch microfloppy disk. In 1997, IBM introduced a high density of 1.44 MB with PS/2. However in 1988, IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB for Double-Sided Extended Density (DSED) it is PS/2 models, this was a commercial failure. The following types of a floppy disks with diagram is given below.

Types of Floppy Disk

  • 8 inch Floppy Disk
  • 5.25 inch Floppy Disk
  • 3.5 inch Floppy Disk
Types of Floppy Disk

Floppy Disk Drives

Wednesday, 24 February 2021

Types of RAM

What are the Types of RAM?

The following types of RAM are given below.

  • SRAM - Static Random Access Memory
  • DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • FPM DRAM - Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • EDO DRAM - Extended Data Out Random Access Memory
  • SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • DDR SDRAM - Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • RDRAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • DDR2 - Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • DDR3 - Double Data Rate 3 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • DDR4 - Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • VRAM - Video Random Access Memory

Random Access Memory (RAM)

The Random Access Memory is a volatile memory or temporary storage device and its used to store working data and machine code and Random Access Memory allows data to read or write in the physical location of data in contact with direct access to storage media such as DVD read/write, CD read/write, and hard disk. Therefore it is a part of the computer’s main memory which is directly accessible by CPU and it is volatile in nature, it means if the power goes off, the stored information is lost and it is use to store the data that is currently process by the CPU and most of the programs and data that are modifiable are store in RAM.

SRAM - Static Random Access Memory

Static Random Access Memory(SRAM) is a volatile memory, when power is off data is lost. The term static differentiates SRAM from DRAM which must be periodically refresh. It consists of circuits capable of retaining their state as long as power is on this type of memory is a volatile memories.
SRAM

DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory

Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) is a type of random-access semiconductor memory that stores the binary information into a memory cell of a capacitor that tends to lose over a period of time and therefore the main memory is made up of DRAM chip.

DRAM

FPM DRAM - Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory

Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random Access Memory (FPM DRAM) is a type of Dynamic RAM designed for the fastest access to data in the same row or column and therefore individual bits are store in each cell of the array.
FPM DRAM

EDO DRAM - Extended Data Out Random Access Memory

Extended Data Out Random Access Memory (EDO DRAM) is a type of faster page mode dynamic RAM whose main features were to reduce the time which reads from memory as a faster microprocessor such as Intel Pentium.
EDO DRAM

ADRAM - Asynchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Asynchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (ADRAM) is the older type of DRAM it asynchronously controls the timing of the memory device is also known as first-person computers because memory device timing is not synchronized with the computer system clock and the timing of the memory device is control by the memory control circuits that generate the control signal for controlling time.
ADRAM

SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) is a type of DRAM with an interface synchronous with the system bus which carries data between the central processing unit (CPU) and the memory controller hub and a processor can perform in a given time due to an increase in the number of instructions.
SDRAM

CDRAM - Cache Dynamic Random Access Memory

Cache Dynamic Random Access Memory (CDRAM) is the type of DRAM with an on-chip cache memory is a CDRAM. Therefore it acts as a high-speed buffer for the main memory and it contains 1 MB DRAM and 8 KB static RAM for cache memory.
CDRAM

DDR SDRAM - Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM) is the fastest version of SDRAM and is the class of integrated circuits used in computers. Therefore the data transfer rate was double by transferring data on both edges of the clock and it improves memory access speed up to 200 MHz.
DDR SDRAM

RDRAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory

Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM) is the type of SDRAM developed by Rambus. It provides a very high data transfer rate over a CPU memory bus. The various speedup mechanisms are very fast signal timing, cache inside the DRAM chips, and synchronous memory interface. The size of the Rambus data bus is 8 to 9 bits width.
RDRAM

DDR2 SDRAM - Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR2 SDRAM) is a high-performance SDRAM interface and is the second generation of double data rate SDRAM and its performance is increased significantly. Due to a wide array of capabilities, it makes DDR2 an excellent memory.
DDR2 SDRAM

DDR3 SDRAM - Double Data Rate 3 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Data Rate 3 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR3 SDRAM) is a type of Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory with a high bandwidth interface and it is the high-speed successor DDR to DDR2 SDRAM chips and it has different signaling voltages, timing, and other factors were DDR3 SDRAM is neither forward nor backward compatible with any type of random access memory.
DDR3 SDRAM

DDR4 SDRAM- Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

Double Data Rate 4 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR4 RAM) is a class of memory integrates circuits used in computers and it is the type of random access memory module that allows faster transfer rate and higher performance compare to early RAM modules and it transfers memory both the edges rising and falling of a clock, it doubles the transferred data rate.
DDR4 SDRAM

VRAM - Video Random Access Memory

Video Random Access Memory (VRAM) is a high-speed array or dual-ported variant of dynamic RAM which used to store the frame buffer in graphics adapters is also known as simple video memory. For example, image and video data are stores for displays computer.
VRAM


Random Access Memory (RAM)

What is Random Access Memory (RAM)?

The Random Access Memory is a volatile memory or temporary storage device and its use to store working data and machine code and Random Access Memory allows data to read or write in the physical location of data in contact with direct access to storage media such as DVD read/write, CD read/write, and hard disk. Therefore it is a part of the computer’s main memory, which is directly accessible by CPU and it is volatile in nature, it means if the power goes off, the stored information is lost and it is used to store the data that is currently processed by the CPU and most of the programs and data that are modifiable are stores in RAM.

Random Access Memory (RAM)


Friday, 19 February 2021

Types of Intel Processors

What are the types of Intel Processors?

There are 12 types of intel processor they are

  • Intel Atom
  • Intel Celeron
  • Intel Pentium
  • Intel Core Duo
  • Intel Core Solo
  • Intel Core 2 Duo
  • Intel Core 2 Quad
  • Intel Core 2 Extreme
  • Intel Core i3
  • Intel Core i5
  • Intel Core i7
  • Intel Xeon

Tyes of Processors

Intel Atom

Intel Atom

The Intel Atom processor was designed by Intel Corporation it uses less power and reduces energy consumption. It supports Ultra HD 4k multimedia and streams high frames per second (FPS). It provides high performance to users. CPU Clock Rate is 600 MHz to 2.6 GHz, Size is 45 nm to 10 nm, and Front side bus Speed is 40 MHz to 667 MHz.

Intel Celeron

Intel Celeron

The Intel Celeron processor was designed by Intel Corporation it uses low power voltage and it is a computer microprocessor model. It used to stream, read, listen, and view the information in the computer. It supports a wide range of multimedia capabilities. CPU Clock Rate is 266 MHz to 2.6 GHz, Size is 250 nm to 14 nm, and Front side bus Speed is 66 MHz to 1333 MT/s.

Intel Pentium

Intel Pentium

The Intel Pentium processor was designed by Intel Corporation and produced in 1993 it performance is faster then compared to the atom and Celeron processors. It consumes low power and used for streaming Ultra-High Definition video and reading the news. It supports wide range of computer devices. The CPU Clock Rate is 60 MHz to 3.2 GHz, Size is 180 nm to 32 nm, and Front side bus Speed is 60 MHz to 1066 MT/s.

Intel Core Duo

Intel Core Duo

The Intel Core Duo as designed by Intel Corporation it contains two core microprocessors, based on a microarchitecture core. Its processor base frequency is 1.83 GHz, it provides 2 MB of L2 cache, and the bus speed is 667 MHz. It consists of a 32-bit instruction set.

Intel Core Solo

Intel Core Solo

The Intel Core Solo is also a core duo type that uses two cores and were Intel Corporation is disabled the one core for selling as a Core Solo to reduce price and its instruction set is 32 bit. It has a 2 MB L2 Cache, bus speed is 667 MHz and the voltage range is 1.1625V to 1.30V.

Intel Core 2 Duo
Intel Core 2 Duo

The Intel Core Duo was designed by Intel Corporation and it was introduced in 2006. It is a 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set and it is an Intel dual-core microprocessor-based on microarchitecture core.  The CPU Clock Rate is 1.06 GHz to 3.33 GHz, Size is 65 nm to 45 nm, and Front side bus Speed is 800 MT/s to 1600 MT/s.

Intel Core 2 Quad

Intel Core 2 Quad

The Intel Core 2 Quad was designed by Intel Corporation it contains four cores microprocessor, based on microarchitecture core. The processor base frequency is 2.40 GHz, it contains 8 MB L2 cache, and the bus speed is 1066 MHz. Its voltage range is 0.8500V to 1.500V. It has 64 bit of instruction set.

Intel Core 2 Extreme

Intel Core 2 Extreme

The Intel Core 2 Extreme is based on Intel four cores microprocessor. It contains 64-bit instruction sets of x86 version. The processor base frequency is 3.00 GHz, it has 12 MB of L2 cache, and the bus speed is 1333 MHz. Its voltage range is 0.8500V to 1.3625V. It consists of Intel virtualization technology (VT-x) and thermal monitoring technologies.

Intel Core i3

Intel Core i3

The Intel Core i3 was designed by Intel Corporation and the first version of Intel Core i3 was release in 2010. It is a 64-bit version and the processor base frequency range is from 1 GHz to 4.2 GHz, it has 2 x 256 Kib of L2 Cache and 4 Mib of L3 Cache, and the voltage range is from 0.65V to 1.4V and the technologies it supports they are Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x), Hyperthreading, smart cache, and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST). 

Intel Core i5

Intel Core i5

The Intel Core i5 was designed by Intel Corporation and the first version of Intel Core i5 was released in 2009. It is a 64-bit version of x86 instruction set. The processor base frequency range is from 1.07 GHz to 4.1 GHz, it has 4 x 256 Kib of L2 Cache and 8 Mib of L3 Cache, and the voltage range is from 0.65V to 1.4V and the technologies it supports they are Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x), Hyperthreading, Turbo Boost, smart cache, and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST). 

Intel Core i7

Intel Core i7

The Intel Core i7 was designed by Intel Corporation and the first version of Intel Core i7 was release in 2008. It is a 64-bit version of x86 instruction set. The processor base frequency range is from 1.07 GHz to 4.3 GHz, it has 4 x 256 Kib of L2 Cache and 8 Mib of L3 Cache, and the voltage range is from 0.8V to 1.375V and the technologies it supports they are Intel Virtualization Technology (VT-x), Hyperthreading, Turbo Boost, smart cache, and Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology (EIST). 

Intel Xeon

Intel Xeon
The Intel Xeon is designed by Intel Corporation and it was first introduced in 1998. It is advanced security technology and it is used for servers, secure cloud service, and workstations. It is an integrated Ultra High Definition Graphics. Its Max Turbo Frequency is 5.00 GHz, it consists of up to 8 Cores and it contains up to 24 MB Intel Smart L3 Cache.


Processor

What is Processor?

The processor is also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the integrated circuitry (IC) chip within a computer. It is responsible for the input/output, arithmetic, controlling, and logical operations which are specified by the computer commands or program. The processor is the “brain” of the PC. It carries out instructions received from software, using the data that you have inputted in order to produce output.

Processor



Thursday, 18 February 2021

Motherboard

What is Motherboard?

Motherboard

If the processor is the brain of the computer, the motherboard is the heart of the computer. The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the computer and however, all the components and peripherals are attached to it. Therefore the most of the compute features like scalability and upgradeability depend on the motherboard.

Computer Motherboard Components

Components of Motherboard

Key Assessable Parameters of Motherboard

  • Form factor
  • Chipset
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Audio
  • Ports and Slots
  • Headers and Connectors
  • BIOS

Form factor

The root mean square value ratio to the average value ratio of the alternating current is called Form Factor and it is the ratio of the root mean square value to the average value is also known as the absolute value of the waveform.

Measurements of Form Factor,

Form Factor Formula

Where RMS is Root Mean Square Value, AV is Average Value Ir.m.s is the root main square value of current, therefore Iav are the average value of alternating current.

Chipset

A chipset is a set of integrated circuits or electronic components of the motherboard chip it manages the flow of data between the central processing unit (CPU) that controls memory, processor, external devices, and other peripherals and therefore it communicates between the central processing unit and external devices with a set of functions of northbridge and southbridge.

Chipset
Northbridge
Southbridge

CPU

CPU stands for Central Processing Unit it is electronic components of the motherboard that performs basic operations like input/output, arithmetic, controlling and logical. However in Computer Industry the term “Central Processing Unit” was used in 1955.

CPU Socket

Memory

Memory is a storage device that is used to store data. The different types of storage technologies are primary memory that is random access memory and read-only memory and secondary memory types are hard disk drive and solid-state drive.

Video

The video consists of an expansion card such as the video card, display adaptor, graphics card, display card, and video adaptor and it used to generate output images on a computer monitor. Generally, it used in place of the integrated graphics cards to reduce system load time and battery life.

Audio

The audio that consists of an internal expansion card is also called a sound card or audio card that established input/output audio signals and the audio application performs operations on the computer with the help of an audio card that applied to the external audio interface.

Ports

The computer ports are integrated part of circuit boards or motherboard that is divided into two parts that are an internal integrated port which is used to connect devices inside the system unit and another one is an external port that is used to connect devices with the help of a slot on the motherboard.

Slots

The slots are a type of expansion slots which are the installation point for other hardware expansion slots connection on the computer, for example, network interface card, video card, graphics card, audio card, etc.

PCI Slots
Expression Slot
AGP Slot
Memory Slots

Headers

The header is a collection of pins on the motherboard and it is a type of connector and therefore it contains color coding and onboard labeling to identifies the pins for external wires connection, cabinet front panel USB connection, and light indication connection.

1394 Header
S/PDIF Header
USB Header

Connectors

The computer connectors are the part of a cable that is inserted in a motherboard slot and a connector comes in two forms male and female. There are many types of on-board connectors available such as a motherboard power connector, ATA IDE connector, floppy disk connector, serial port connector, front panel audio connector, and CPU fan connector.

Case Connector
CPU Fan Connector
SATA Connector 
Motherboard Power Connector 24 Pin

System Panel Connector 

CD-IN Connector

Front Panel Audio Connector

P4 Power Connector
Serial Port Connector
Floppy Connector
ATA IDE Connector

BIOS

Acronym of BIOS is Basic Input Output System and it is a program (set of instructions) written in machine level language and this program is stored in permanent semiconductor memory called Flash ROM located on the motherboard therefore it is a firmware that comes pre-installed with the computer system board. It used to initialize hardware or manages the flow of data during a booting process between the operating systems and other hardware components. The Hardware components are such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, printer, graphics adapter, sound card, hard disk, computer memory, etc,. However, it is the first application that runs immediately after the power switch on.

BIOS