Thursday, 18 February 2021


What is Motherboard?


If the processor is the brain of the computer, the motherboard is the heart of the computer. The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the computer and however, all the components and peripherals are attached to it. Therefore the most of the compute features like scalability and upgradeability depend on the motherboard.

Computer Motherboard Components

Components of Motherboard

Key Assessable Parameters of Motherboard

  • Form factor
  • Chipset
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Audio
  • Ports and Slots
  • Headers and Connectors
  • BIOS

Form factor

The root mean square value ratio to the average value ratio of the alternating current is called Form Factor and it is the ratio of the root mean square value to the average value is also known as the absolute value of the waveform.

Measurements of Form Factor,

Form Factor Formula

Where RMS is Root Mean Square Value, AV is Average Value Ir.m.s is the root main square value of current, therefore Iav are the average value of alternating current.


A chipset is a set of integrated circuits or electronic components of the motherboard chip it manages the flow of data between the central processing unit (CPU) that controls memory, processor, external devices, and other peripherals and therefore it communicates between the central processing unit and external devices with a set of functions of northbridge and southbridge.



CPU stands for Central Processing Unit it is electronic components of the motherboard that performs basic operations like input/output, arithmetic, controlling and logical. However in Computer Industry the term “Central Processing Unit” was used in 1955.

CPU Socket


Memory is a storage device that is used to store data. The different types of storage technologies are primary memory that is random access memory and read-only memory and secondary memory types are hard disk drive and solid-state drive.


The video consists of an expansion card such as the video card, display adaptor, graphics card, display card, and video adaptor and it used to generate output images on a computer monitor. Generally, it used in place of the integrated graphics cards to reduce system load time and battery life.


The audio that consists of an internal expansion card is also called a sound card or audio card that established input/output audio signals and the audio application performs operations on the computer with the help of an audio card that applied to the external audio interface.


The computer ports are integrated part of circuit boards or motherboard that is divided into two parts that are an internal integrated port which is used to connect devices inside the system unit and another one is an external port that is used to connect devices with the help of a slot on the motherboard.


The slots are a type of expansion slots which are the installation point for other hardware expansion slots connection on the computer, for example, network interface card, video card, graphics card, audio card, etc.

PCI Slots
Expression Slot
AGP Slot
Memory Slots


The header is a collection of pins on the motherboard and it is a type of connector and therefore it contains color coding and onboard labeling to identifies the pins for external wires connection, cabinet front panel USB connection, and light indication connection.

1394 Header
S/PDIF Header
USB Header


The computer connectors are the part of a cable that is inserted in a motherboard slot and a connector comes in two forms male and female. There are many types of on-board connectors available such as a motherboard power connector, ATA IDE connector, floppy disk connector, serial port connector, front panel audio connector, and CPU fan connector.

Case Connector
CPU Fan Connector
SATA Connector 
Motherboard Power Connector 24 Pin

System Panel Connector 

CD-IN Connector

Front Panel Audio Connector

P4 Power Connector
Serial Port Connector
Floppy Connector
ATA IDE Connector


Acronym of BIOS is Basic Input Output System and it is a program (set of instructions) written in machine level language and this program is stored in permanent semiconductor memory called Flash ROM located on the motherboard therefore it is a firmware that comes pre-installed with the computer system board. It used to initialize hardware or manages the flow of data during a booting process between the operating systems and other hardware components. The Hardware components are such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, printer, graphics adapter, sound card, hard disk, computer memory, etc,. However, it is the first application that runs immediately after the power switch on.



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