Sunday, 7 February 2021

WAN Protocols

Explain WAN Protocols?

The WAN (Wide Area Network) Protocols are ATM, HDLC, SLIP, FR, PPP, ISDN, and X.25.

  • ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • HDLC - High-Level Data Link Control
  • SLIP - Serial Line Interface Protocol
  • FR - Frame Relay
  • PPP - Point to Point Protocol
  • ISDN - Integrated Service Digital Network
  • X.25 - ITU-T standard Protocol Suite

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

It is an International Standard for cell relay and the cell relay is a network technology based on the use of small, fixed-size packets or cells, therefore it allows data, voice, and video to be conveyed in fixed-length cells of 53 bytes and the fixed-length cells reduce transportation delays by allowing processing to occur in hardware. ATM used high-speed transmission media such as E3 (45 Mbps), T3 (56 Kbps), and SONET (Synchronous Optical Network).

HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)

The default encapsulation type on point-to-point, the dedicated link is HDLC and it’s typically used for communication between two Cisco devices, therefore it is a bit-oriented synchronous protocol.

SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)

SLIP predates point to point (PPP) and it uses a variation of TCP/IP, therefore it is a standard protocol for point-to-point serial connections.

FR (Frame Relay)

It is an Industry Standard Protocol, therefore it can handle multiple virtual circuits and is streamlined to cut out some of the lengthy processes that X.25 employs.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

Point to Point (PPP) provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous and asynchronous circuits and therefore it can work with IP and IPX. The security mechanisms are such as PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication protocol ) are built into PPP.

ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network)

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of digital services that transmit voice and data over existing phone lines and it can offer a cost-effective solution for remote users who need a high-speed connection than an analog dial-up link offers.


It is an ITU-T standard (International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication) Standardization sector and it is an international body that develops worldwide standards for telecommunication technologies and therefore it defines how connections between DTE and the DCE maintain. However these connections are uses for remote terminal access and computer communication in the public networks, X.25 is a precursor of frame relay, and it specifies Link Access Procedure Balanced ( LAPB ), which is a data-link layer protocol.

Also Learn about Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)



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